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بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْم

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْن،وَالصَّلاۃ وَالسَّلامُ عَلَی النَّبِیِّ الْکَرِيم وَعَلیٰ آله وَاَصْحَابه اَجْمَعِيْن۔

Entering Haram of Makkah without wearing Hajj or Umrah Ahraam

According to the teachings of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) there is consensus among the entire Muslim community that whenever those who stay out of Meeqaat[1] (for instance Aafaaqi, as residents of Riyadh and Dammam, or people living in India and Pakistan) head towards Makkah to perform Hajj or Umrah, they must put on their Ihraam when they reach one of the five Meeqaats or wear Ihraam in front of them or before reaching any of these Meeqaats. In case an Aafaaqi (a person who lives outside the boundaries of Meeqaat) performs Hajj or Umrah by putting on Ihraam while remaining inside the boundaries of Meeqaats, for instance Makkah or Tan’eem (where Masjid-e-Aisha is situated) or Jeddah, he/she is be obligated to perform one sacrifice in the name of Allah. In case the person arrives at the Meeqaat and intends for Hajj and Umrah before having performed either of the two, he/she will be exempted from performing sacrifice in the name of Allah.

In case an Aafaaqi (a person who stays outside the boundaries of Meeqaat) wants to go to Makkah without the intention of performing Hajj or Umrah, can he go to the city without wearing the Ihraam? In this regard there is disagreement between the learned scholars of the Muslim community. However, the learned scholars agree that it is better that whenever an Aafaaqi sets out for Makkah he should put on the Ihraam. As per the opinion of Imam Abu Haneefah (RHA), Imam Malik (RHA) and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (RHA), in order to preserve the sanctity of the Holy Mosque it is required on the part of the person to enter Makkah in Ihraam. However, as per the opinion of Imam Shaf’ee (RHA) it is not obligatory but supererogatory, as narrated by Imam Nawwi (RHA). The majority of the learned scholars present the tradition narrated by Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) as in argument in their support. According to that narration Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, “Do not cross the Meeqaat without wearing Ihraam” (Tabraani). Similarly famous Tabi’ee (a person who saw companion of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in the state of belief) Hazrat Saeed bin Jubair (RHA) reports that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, “None should cross the Meeqaat without wearing Ihraam” (Musnaf Ibne Abi Shaibah 4/52). At the time of the conquest of Makkah, Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) entry into Makkah without wearing Ihraam was based on a legal pretext, as, again at the time of the conquest of Makkah, killing of few people within the boundary of Haram, even inside the Holy Mosque, was permissible because of a legal pretext because it had been mentioned in the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) that only for a short while fighting was declared permissible. And after the conquest of Makkah not even a single companion of Prophet Muhammad (PHUB) used to go to Makkah without wearing the Ihraam. Hazrat Imam Shaf’ee reports that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, “These Meeqaats are for those local inhabitants and outsiders who cross the Meeqaat with an intention of performing Haj or Umrah, while the Aafaaqi who heads to Makkah with the intention of performing Hajj or Umrah will have to wear Ihraam at one of these five Meeqaats. However, in case he is going to Makkah for some other reason say business or employment then he does not have to wear Ihraam.

Under the supervision of renowned learned scholar of our times Qazi Mujahidul Islam (RHA), a seminar for Hanafi scholars on this issue was organised in India in the year 1999 wherein the learned scholars presented their valuable insights. Out of those, few scholars adhered to the position held by majority of Hanafi scholars in the light of the narration of Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (RZA) that for an Aafaaqi it is compulsory to wear Ihraam while entering Makkah. However, another group of learned scholars argued that in the present times businessmen and drivers repeatedly go to Makkah and making Ihraam compulsory for them each time they cross Meeqaat will lead to severe inconvenience for them. Therefore, it was held, that those people who go to Makkah repeatedly because of business or employment can enter the city without wearing Ihraam.

In relation to those people who do not go to Makkah repeatedly but have performed number of Haj and Umrahs because of living in Saudi Arabia and, for some reason, do not want to perform Umrah in one of their travels to Makkah, in case they enter Makkah without wearing Ihraam, in Sha Allah, it will not be obligatory on their part to sacrifice an animal in the name of Allah. That said, it is better on their part to enter Makkah wearing the Umrah Ihraam. In case one enters Makkah without wearing the Ihraam, he should not wear Ihraam in Makkah or at Masjid-e-Aisha and perform the Umrah because, in case he had already intended the same, sacrificing in the name of Allah becomes obligatory on his part. So the entire Muslim community agrees on the fact that an Aafaaqi should make it a point that whenever he goes to Makkah he wears the Ihraam. Once he has performed the Umrah or before performing the Umrah he can look after other objectives of his travel (for instance attending some meeting, business, catching up with relatives who have come from India or Pakistan etc.). However, in case a person lives in Riyadh, Dammam, or Madinah and has performed several Hajj and Umrah but, because of a certain reason, ends up entering Makkah without wearing Ihraam in one of his travels, in sha Allah sacrifice in the name of Allah is not be obligatory for him.

There are some Aafaaqis who go to Makkah to attend the completion of the Holy Quran (in the Taraweeh prayer offered in the holy month of Ramadan) or to take part in worshipping Allah on the 27th night of Ramadan without wearing the Ihraam. This can be their desire but according to Islamic Shariah in relation to attending these gatherings too one should not enter Makkah without wearing Ihraam. One can go wearing the Umrah Ihraam and alongside performing the Umrah one could take part in those events/gatherings too. After performing an Umrah, in case an Aafaaqi wants to perform second or third Umrah, he is not required to go to the Meeqaat. Instead he could go anywhere outside the boundaries of Haram (for instance Tan’eem where Masjid-e-Aisha is situated) and wear Ihram for the second Umrah. For performing second/another Umrah men and women are not required to change their cloth sheet and clothes respectively.

Mohammad Najeeb Qasmi (http://www.najeebqasmi.com/)


[1] A specified place beyond which no Muslim who is intending to perform Hajj or Umrah can go towards Makkah without wearing Ihraam. It sets the boundaries of the Haram for people approaching Makkah from all directions. These are places specified by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) himself and depending on the direction from where one heads to Makkah the location of the Meeqaats vary.