بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْم

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْن،وَالصَّلاۃ وَالسَّلامُ عَلَی النَّبِیِّ الْکَرِيم وَعَلیٰ آله وَاَصْحَابه اَجْمَعِيْن۔

Dress of the Prophet (PBUH)

Chapter One: Dress:

This article is about the dress of the leader of prophets and the whole mankind Muhammad Mustafa (PBUH). The aim of this article is to enlighten the people to adopt the way of the Prophet (PBUH) in their dress and avoid such dresses which conflict with Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH), as much as possible. Allah has made the prophetic way an excellent model for all the human being till the Day of Judgment. Allah says in the Holy Qur’an (Surah Al-Ahzab: 21). “There is indeed a good model for you in the Messenger of Allah”.

Libas is the rout word; it means something which is worn (Dress) like the book which means something written. The word of Libas includes turban, cap, shirt, jubbah, sheet, Tahband, Pajama and everything which is worn.

Allah says about dress in the Holy Qur’an: “O children of ‘Adam, We have sent down to you the dress that covers your shame and provides adornment. As for the dress of Taqwa (piety), that is the best.” (Surah al-A’araf: 26) Libasut Taqwa means such dress which has modesty. At another place Allah says: “and made for you shirts that protect you from heat”. (Surah al-Nahl: 81)

In the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah, scholars have said that a person as per the tradition of his area in which he lives may put on any dress taking into a consideration about some conditions, i.e. every dress is halal, as Allah says, Say, Who has prohibited the adornment Allah has brought forth for His servants, and the wholesome things of sustenance? (Surah Al-Araf: 32).

Chapter Two: Some Basic Principles for Shara'ee Dress:

In the light of the sayings of the prophet (PBUH) and his actions, scholars have mentioned some conditions to be followed such as:

  1. Men must wear a dress which covers the parts between the navel and the knee. A dress which covers the whole body except the hand, foot and face. The women must wear a dress which covers the whole body except hand, foot and face (Note: This is about the dress and not the veil, as it is necessary for a woman to cover her face in front of non-Maharms).
  2. A dress should not be against the instructions of the prophet (PBUH). (i.e. men should neither use dress made of silk nor pure red or yellow).
  3. A dress should not be such thin or light that the body parts are visible.
  4. Neither the men's dress should be similar to women's nor the women’s similar to the men's.
  5. Neither the men's dress should be much colourful nor the women’s more perfumed.
  6. Men's dress must be above the ankle while women's dresses should be below the ankle.
  7. The dress of Muslim should not be similar to the religious dresses of the disbelievers.

Chapter Three: The Most Favourite Dress of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), "White Dress"

The Muslim Ummah has agreed that the prophet (PBUH) used to like white dresses. Numerous Ahadeeth mention this. Only two Ahadeeth are mentioned here due to space constraints.

  • Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) narrated that the prophet (PBUH) said: Choose clothes of white colour as it is the best of your clothes and wrap your deceased ones in white shroud. (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Ibne Majah, Musnad Ahmed & Ibne Hibban)
  • Samrah (RA) narrated that the prophet (PBUH)  said: Wear white dresses as these are purer cleaner and better and wrap your deceased ones in it. (Nasai, Tirmizi & Ibne Majah)
  • Umme Salama (RA) said that Allah's messenger (PBUH) loved the qamees the most in his dresses. (Tirmizi 1762, Abu Dawud 4025)
  • Qamees of Allah's messenger (PBUH) used to be white coloured in general. (Abu Dawud, Tirmizi, Ibne Majah, Nasai, Musnad Ahmad, Ibne Hibban etc.)
  • The length of Qamees of Allah's messenger (PBUH) used to be upto the shin (below knee). (Ibne Majah)
  • The length of the sleeves of Qamees of Allah’s messenger (PBUH) used to be upto the wrist and sometimes to the tip of fingers (Abu Dawud, Tirmizi).
  • Qamees and sleeves of Allah's messenger (PBUH) used to be wide and loose.
  • Turban of Allah's messenger (PBUH) used to be white most of the times but sometimes black or green. Turban of Allah's messenger (PBUH) used to be 6 to 7 arms length.
  • Abdullah bin Umar (RA) narrated that when Allah's messenger (PBUH) put on his turban he put it in the middle of his shoulders, i.e. shamla of his turban used to be hanged between the two shoulders. (Mishkat, p 374).
  • Jabir bin Umar (RA) narrated that on the day of Conquest of Makkah, Allah's messenger (PBUH) entered Makkah putting on his head black turban. (Muslim, Tirmizi).
  • Jafar bin Amr bin Huraith narrated from his father (RA) that he had seen black turban on the head of Allah's messenger (PBUH). (Tirmizi).
  • Asma bint Abu Bakr (RA) narrated that she brought Tayalasi Kisrawaniyah Jubbah its collar was made of silk and the front part was sewed with silk and said "This is jubbah of Allah's messenger (PBUH) which was with the mother of believers Ayesha (RA). When she died I took it. Allah's messenger (PBUH) used to wear it. Now we wash it to for diseases and seek cure from it (Mishkat, p 374).
  • Allah's messenger (PBUH) used both Roman and Syrian jubbah (Bukhari and Muslim).
  • Abu Saeed Al-Khudri (RA) narrated that Allah's messenger (PBUH) said: The dress of Muslims should be upto the centre of shin, it is allowed to wear a dress which is between shin and ankle, the part of the dress that is below the ankle is in the Hellfire. (Abu Dawood, Ibne Majah)
  • Abdullah bin Umar (RA) narrates that Allah’s messenger said, the person who lowers his dress below ankle, on the Day of Judgment, Allah will not see towards him. (Bukhari 10/217 & Muslim 2085)
  • Abu Huraira narrates that Allah’s messenger said, the part of the dress below the ankles is in the Hellfire. (Bukhari 10/218)
  • Abdullah bin Umar (RA) narrates that Allah’s messenger said, hanging is found in Tahband, Qamees and Amamah, whoever hangs any of it below the ankles out of arrogance on the Day of Judgment, Allah will not see towards him. (Abu Dawood 4094, Nasai 8/208)
  • Abdullah bin Umar (RA) said whatever Allah's messenger said about pyjama the same applies to Qamees also. (Abu Dawud).
  • Abdullah bin Umar (RA) narrates that Allah's messenger (PBUH) said, whoever lowers his dress below the ankle out of arrogance on the Day of Judgment, Allah will not see towards him with mercy. Umme Salmah (RA) asked what should the women do of their daman (lower part of the women’s dress)? The messenger (PBUH) said, they ought to hang it one fist below the centre of their shin. Umme Salmah again asked, what, if then also their feet are opened? The messenger (PBUH) said, they hang it one arm below the centre of their shin and not more than that. (Abu Dawood 4119, Tirmizi 1736)
  • Abdullah bin Umar (RA) narrates that the prophet (PBUH) said, whoever wore the dress of fame, Allah will make him wear the humiliating dress on the Day of Judgment. (Abu Dawood)
  • Abu Hurairah (RA) narrates that Ayesha (RA) brought a patched sheet and a thick Tahband before us and told that the messenger (PBUH) gave up his spirit in these two clothes. (Bukhari Vol: 2 p 865, Muslim)
  • Abu Hurairah (RA) narrates that Ayesha (RA)said the prophet (PBUH) told me that, if you want to meet me then something equal to the traveler’s provision should suffice you from the world, save yourself from the gathering of wealthy persons and don’t deem any clothe unless you put a patch on it. (Tirmizi 1780) This is the utmost contentment that one is not ashamed of wearing patched dresses.
  • Amr bin Shoeb narrates from his father and from his grand father that the prophet (PBUH) said Allah likes to see the effect of His blessings on His slaves (Tirmizi 2820) i.e. if Allah has given wealth to any he should wear best clothes.
  • Mu’az bin Anas (RA) narrates that the prophet (PBUH) said, whoever saved him from the extravagance in clothes due to the fear of Allah, though he was much capable of this, Allah will call him on the Day of Judgment before all the mankind and make him wear from the ornaments of Jannah whatever he wishes. (Tirmizi 2483)
  • It is narrated from Jaber (RA) that, a man came to the prophet in dirty clothes, he (PBUH) said, didn’t he get anything to wash his clothes? (Nasai & Musnad Ahmed)
  • Wearing clothes from right hand side is Sunnah.
  • Supplication while wearing new dress;
  • How to wear Pyjama?
  • Sheet of Hairs:
  • Umar Farooq (RA) narrates that the prophet (PBUH) said, the man who wore silken clothes in the world would be deprived of silken clothes on the Day of Judgment. (Bukhari & Muslim)
  • Umar Farooq (RA) narrates that the prophet (PBUH) said, only that man wear silken clothes in the world who does not have a part in the Day of Judgment. (Bukhari & Muslim)
  • Abu Moosa Ash’ari (RA) narrates that the prophet (PBUH) said, that silken clothes and golden ornaments are forbidden for the men of my Ummah. (Tirmizi 1720)
  • Umar Farooq (RA) narrates that the prophet (PBUH) has forbad to wear silken clothes but equal to 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 fingers. (Bukhari: 5829 & Muslim: 2069)
  • Anas (RA) narrates that the prophet (PBUH) allowed Zubair and Abdur Rahman bin Auf to wear silken clothes to cure itching.
  • Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas (RA) said, when the prophet(PBUH) saw me in pure yellow clothes, he (PBUH) asked me not to wear it as it is the dress of disbelievers and polytheists. (Muslim 2077)
  • Second Caliph Umar Farooq (RA) sent a message to Muslims of Azerbaijan that they should avoid leisure and clothes of polytheists. (Muslim 2609)
  • Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) narrates that the prophet (PBUH) said, may the curses of Allah be on those men who imitate women either in clothing or talking, may the curses of Allah be on those women who imitate men either in clothing or talking. (Bukhari)

The purer because they become dirty soon and therefoer washed frequently, contrary to the coloured clothes, for they are not washed frequently, and the dirt get stuck on them. Therefore, a sound nature inclines to it. Abul Laith Samarqandi (RHA) in his book "Bustanul Aarifeen" and the author of the well-known book of Hanafi jurisprudence "Raddul Mukhtar" Allama Shami (RHA) wrote that the best among the colours is the white colour and wearing white dresses is Sunnah of the prophet (PBUH).

Chapter Four: Saying and Action of Prophet (PBUH) about Colored Dresses:

Prophet (PBUH) mostly used to wear white dresses, though sometimes he has worn coloured dresses also. The coloured dress was in the form of sheet, head cover, or cloak, but his Qamees (shirt) and Tahband (lower dress) used to be of white colour generally.

Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas (RA) narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) once saw him wearing pure yellow dress and said this is the dress of disbeliever, don’t wear it. In one Hadeeth it is mentioned that Allah's messenger (PBUH) ordered him to put it on fire.

Imran bin Husain (RA) narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said: Neither will I ride Arghwani horse, nor will I wear yellow coloured clothes having silk border, and beware that men's aroma is one which has no colour and women's aroma is the one which has no smell but it is colourful (Mishkat, page 375). Arghwan is a red coloured flower, now people say Arghwani to any red colour and in this Hadeeth red colour is meant.

Abi Rimtha Refa'ah (RA) said, “I had seen the prophet (PBUH) wearing two green clothes.” (Abu Daud 4065, Tirmizi, 2813).

Bara'a (RA) said, “Prophet (PBUH) was of medium length. Once I saw him wearing a sheet with red coloured lining. I never saw a scene more beautiful than this” (Bukhari 10/258, Muslim 2337).

Anas (RA) narrated that the prophet (PBUH) liked Yemeni sheet with red coloured lining very much. (Bukhari and Muslim).

Clarification: It has been narrated in some Ahadeeth that Allah's messenger (PBUH) had used red coloured dress while in some Ahadeeth he (PBUH) has prohibited men to wear red and yellow coloured clothes. There seem to be a conflict in this. Scholars and Muhadditheen have said to remove this conflict by saying that it is prohibited to use pure red or yellow colour dresses, and it is not prohibited to use dresses having red or yellow colour lining (designing).

Chapter Five: Qamees (Shirt) of the Prophet (PBUH):

Chapter Six: Turban of Allah's messenger (PBUH):

Note: Hanging of Shamla is Mustahabb and it is from among the extra Sunnah. Shamla should be of at least 4 fingers long and it should not be more than one hand.

Chapter Seven: Cap of Allah's messenger (PBUH):

Allah's messenger (PBUH) generally used white cap. While in his native place his cap used to be sticking to his head but in his journey his cap used to be raised on his head. Allama Ibnul Qayyim (RHA) wrote in his book (Zadul Ma'ad Fi Hadyi Khairil Ibad) that Allah's messenger (PBUH) used to tie turban and put a cap beneath it. Allah's messenger (PBUH) put on cap without turban also and used turban without wearing cap also. All scholars of the Saudi Arabia are of the opinion that wearing cap is Sunnah of Allah's messenger (PBUH) and it has been used by all Muhadditheen, Mufassireen, jurists, scholars and pious persons. Moreover, cap is an adornment for a the human being. In the light of the Qur’anic verse of (Surah Al-A'raf 31) one is required to be adorned. So we should offer our Salahs wearing caps.  Abdullah bin Umar (RA) once saw his slave Nafe’ offering Salah bare-headed, he became very angry and said Allah is the most deserving that we should come in front of Him with adornment. Imam Abu Hanifah (RHA) said "offering Salat bare-head is Makrouh (disagreeable). Muahddith of the current age Sheikh Nasiruddin Albani (RHA) wrote in his book "Tamamul Minnah" on page 164 that on the issue in question I believe that offering Salah bare-headed is Makrouh (Disagreeable).

Chapter Eight: Jubbah (Cloak) of Allah's messenger (PBUH):

Chapter Nine: Izar (Trouser) of Allah's messenger (PBUH)

Izar means a dress which is worn on the lower part of one's body. Generally, Allah's messenger (PBUH) used Tahband. However, sometimes he had used pyjama (trouser) also. Tahband of Allah's messenger (PBUH) used to be from above the navel till half of the shin. Prophet's companions (RA) would also generally use Tahband and they would also use pyjama with his permission.

In the light of the above Ahadeeth, the scholars have mentioned three conditions as under:

Till the centre of the shin                : Sunnah of the prophet (PBUH)

Till the ankle                                    : Permissible

Below the ankle without arrogance        : Makrouh

Below the ankle with arrogance    : Haram (Not permissible).

Women's dresses should be below the ankle bone.

Chapter Ten: Moderation in the Dress of the Prophet (PBUH):

Allah's messenger (PBUH) used expensive dress also, but he did not make it a habit. He (PBUH) would wear all kinds of dresses without any hesitation.

One should wear good and clean clothes upto his capability without being extravagant.

Chapter Eleven: Some Sunnah of the prophet (PBUH) regarding Libas:

Abu Hurairah (RA) narrates, the prophet (PBUH) would wear his Qamees from the right side. (Tirmizi Vol. 1 p 302) in a way that first he would put his right hand in the right sleeve then the left hand in the left sleeve.

Abu Saeed Al-Khudri (RA) said: when prophet (PBUH) would wear any new cloth, he would name it, i.e. Amamah or Qamees or Sheet, then recite this supplication;

"اللهم لك الحمد انت كسوتنيه اسئلك من خيره وخير ما صنع له وأعوذ بك من شره وشر ما صنع له"

(Allahumma lakal hamdu anta kasautaneehi As’aluka min khairihi wa khairi ma suni’a lahu wa A’ouzu bika min sharrihi wa sharri ma suni’a lahu)

(O my Allah, I thank You for You wore me this, I seek its goodness and seek the goodness for which it is made and seek Your refuge from its evil and the evil for which it is made. (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi)

Among instructions given by Allah's messenger (PBUH) is that one should wear pyjama or Shalwar while sitting. In some weak Ahadeeth tough punishment has been mentioned for wearing clothes while standing. Shah Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlawi (RHA) has mentioned a hadith in his book "Kashful Iltebas Fi Istehbabil Libas", that whoever tied Amamah while he is seated or wore pyjama while standing, Allah will put him in such calamity that it can’t be cured. Our scholars always take a safe side, therefore to be safe one should wear pyjama while sitting though it is permissible to wear in standing position also.

Ayesha (RA) said once Allah's messenger went outside the house wearing a sheet of black hair. (Shama'ele Tirmizi).

Chapter Twelve: Sayings of the prophet (PBUH) about Silken Clothes:

It is haram for amen to wear silken clothes. However it is permissible for a man to wear dresses having a border of 2 or 3 or 4 fingers. It is also permissible for men to wear silken clothes seeking cure from itching.

Chapter Thirteen: Similarity of Dresses with that of Disbelievers:

Allah's messenger (PBUH) generally (in Libas and other things) prohibited to imitate disbelievers and polytheists. Allah's messenger (PBUH) said,

من تشبه بقوم فهو منهم

Whoever imitates a nation, he is one of them. (Abu Dawood 4031)

It is specially prohibited to imitate disbelievers and polytheists in Libas:

Chapter Fourteen: Similarity between Dresses of Men and Women:

Chapter Fifteen: Comparison between Pants, Shirt and Kurta, Pyjama:

As mentioned above that in principle every dress is halal. A person can wear any dress according to the traditions of the place where he lives with some conditions. Among these conditions is that, the dress should not be that of disbelievers and polytheists. Pants & shirt have not been advised by Muslims for sure. However, this dress has become common, used by Muslims and Non-Muslims alike. Therefore, using pants & shirt with the conditions mentioned above is permissible without any karahiyyat (dislike). However, kurta & pyjama is better due to some reasons as mentioned below:

  1. Kurta & Pyjama is generally made of white or similar colours, while pants & shirt are coloured. In the light of sound Ahadeeth, Muslim Ummah is agreed that Allah's beloved prophet (PBUH) would like white coloured dresses and his dress would generally be of white colour.
  2. Muhammad (PBUH), the prophet of people till the Day of Judgment, liked Qamees very much. The characteristics of Qamees of Allah's messenger mentioned in Ahadeeth apply on today's Thob & Kurta more than pants & shirt.
  3. Though the pants and shirt is now widely used by Muslims and Non-Muslims, however the world accepts this fact that pants & shirt originally was not a culture of Muslims, while kurta & pyjama dates back to the time of Allah's messenger (PBUH). I have already mentioned Kurta i.e. Qamees. As for as pyjama is concerned, Allah's messenger (PBUH) had used Tahband. Scholars have differed whether Allah's messenger (PBUH) used pyjama or not. However all researchers, Muhadditheen and scholars have agreed that Allah's messenger (PBUH) bought a pyjama and his companions would wear pyjama with his permission.
  4. Scholars and jurists have not adopted pants & shirt as their dress any time in any part of the world.

Note:

  • There may be difference between pyjama of the current age and that of the pyjama of prophet's companions (RA), however, the preference would be given due to the fact that they both are based on the same principle. Likewise, we find difference between the mosques of the time of prophet's companions (RA) and that of the current age, but the mosques of the current age will acquire that superiority which Allah's Messenger (PBUH) had mentioned.
  • It is not appropriate to compare between a tight pyjamas of a specific person with the loose pants of a specific person, because in general a pant is tighter than a pyjama and it is made as per the body's figure.

May Allah help us to adopt the dresses in conformity with Sunnah of His messenger (PBUH), Amen!

Mohammad Najeeb Qasmi (www.najeebqasmi.com)